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Difference between Sigma and Pi Bond

Difference between Sigma and Pi Bond

In chemistry, there are two main types of bonds: covalent and ionic. Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, while ionic bonds are created when one atom donates an electron to another. Sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds are two specific types of covalent bond. While they both involve the sharing of electrons, the way in which they share them is different. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at the difference between Sigma and Pi Bonds.

What is Sigma Bond?

Sigma bonds are the strongest type of covalent bond. They are formed when the nuclei of two atoms share a pair of electrons. Sigma bonds are often formed between atoms of the same element, such as carbon-carbon sigma bonds. The electrons in a sigma bond are located in an orbital that is directly between the nuclei of the two atoms. As a result, sigma bonds are extremely strong and difficult to break. Sigma bonds play a critical role in the structure and function of many molecules, including DNA and proteins.

What is Pi Bond?

Pi bonds are covalent bonds formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms. The electrons are not shared equally, however, and are instead “localized” around one of the atoms. This creates a dipole moment, which can be thought of as a tiny electric charge. Pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds, and as a result, they are more prone to breaking and reforming.

This makes them particularly important in chemical reactions, where they can act as “reactive sites.” Pi bonds can also be found in double and triple bonds, where they help to hold the atoms together. In summary, pi bonds are covalent bonds that are characterized by an unequal sharing of electrons. They are weaker than sigma bonds but play an important role in chemical reactions.

Difference between Sigma and Pi Bond

Sigma and Pi bonds are the two types of covalent bonds that hold atoms together in a molecule. Sigma bonds are formed when the electron clouds of two atoms overlap along their principal axes, while Pi bonds are formed when the electron clouds of two atoms overlap side-by-side. Sigma bonds are stronger than Pi bonds, because they involve a larger area of overlap between the electron clouds. Sigma bonds are also more rigid than Pi bonds because they can only rotate around their axis of symmetry. As a result, Sigma bonds are better able to resist changes in shape, while Pi bonds are more flexible. Although Sigma and Pi bonds share many similarities, they have distinct properties that make them essential for the stability of molecules.


In order to understand the difference between a Sigma and Pi bond, it is important to first have an understanding of what each type of bond actually is. A Sigma bond is formed when two atoms share electrons in such a way that they are both equally electron-rich. This creates a strong, single bond between the atoms. A Pi bond, on the other hand, occurs when two atoms share electrons in a way that one atom has more than its fair share. This creates a weak link between the atoms that can be easily broken. By understanding the difference between these types of bonds, you can better select which type of bonding will work best for your specific situation.

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