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Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation

Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation

Abstraction and encapsulation are two of the most important concepts in object-oriented programming. However, they are often confused with each other. In this blog post, we will explore the difference between abstraction and encapsulation and explain why both concepts are essential for creating successful applications. We will also provide tips for how you can use these concepts to your advantage in your own code. Let’s get started!

What is Abstraction?

  • Abstraction is a concept used in computer programming, math, and other sciences. It can be thought of as the process of simplifying or removing unnecessary details from a concept so that it can be better understood. In computer programming, abstraction is often used to create interfaces that hide the details of how a program works from the user.
  • This allows programmers to focus on the functionality of their code without worrying about the underlying implementation. In mathematics, abstraction is used to study concepts such as numbers and shapes without getting bogged down in the details of specific instances.
  • For example, mathematicians might study the properties of triangles without worrying about the specific lengths of any particular triangle’s sides. Abstraction is a powerful tool that can help us to understand complex concepts by breaking them down into simpler parts.

What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is a programming principle that refers to the bundling of data with the methods that operate on that data, or the wrapping of data and methods into a single unit. The purpose of Encapsulation is to protect data from being modified by code outside the unit, as well as to hide implementation details from code that uses the Encapsulation unit.

  • In some cases, Encapsulation is also used to improve performance by allowing certain optimizations to be made. Encapsulation can be achieved in many different ways, depending on the programming language being used.
  • In some languages, Encapsulation is built into the language itself via access modifiers (such as private, public, and protected). In other languages, Encapsulation must be implemented manually using techniques such as information hiding.
  • Regardless of how it is implemented, Encapsulation is an important concept in programming that can have a significant impact on the design and structure of code.

Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation

Abstraction is the process of hiding the complexity of a system from the user. Encapsulation is the process of hiding the details of an implementation from the user. Abstraction can be achieved by hiding the complexity of a system behind a simpler interface.

  • Encapsulation can be achieved by hiding the details of an implementation behind a well-defined interface. Abstraction and encapsulation are orthogonal concepts.
  • Abstraction hides complexity, while encapsulation hides implementation details. Encapsulation is a mechanism for achieving abstraction. Abstraction is a way of thinking about complexity. Abstraction and encapsulation are two sides of the same coin.
  • Abstraction is about hiding complexity, while encapsulation is about hiding implementation details. They are both about hiding information from the user. Abstraction is about hiding the complexity of a system, while encapsulation is about hiding the details of an implementation.

Abstraction is a higher-level concept than encapsulation. Abstraction is a general principle, while encapsulation is a specific technique. Abstraction and encapsulation are both means to the same end: making software easier to understand and maintain by hiding information from the user.


We’ve looked at the differences between abstraction and encapsulation, two important principles in object-oriented programming. Abstraction allows us to focus on essential details while hiding irrelevant information. Encapsulation keeps related data and code together, protecting them from outside interference. Understanding these concepts is essential for any programmer, so make sure you understand the difference and how to apply each principle in your own work.

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