Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

What is Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells? The set of living organisms can be divided into two groups based on the fundamental structure of their cells. Consequently, although generally speaking the difference between animal and vegetable cells; the truth is that cells can also be classified as prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

To clarify any doubts you may have, then we tell you what the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

Prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells are those that lack a nucleus. This means that the genetic material, i.e. the DNA is dispersed in the cytoplasm. The term “prokaryote” derives from the Greek word “prokaryota”. The majority of organisms constituted by this type of cell possess only one of these and they are called unicellular organisms. In these cases, reproduction occurs by binary fission . Living beings composed of prokaryotic cells are divided into two groups:

  • Bacteria
  • Archaea

Eukaryotes

They are the cells that have a delimited nucleus. Eucariota is a term derived from the Greek word “Å“eukaryote”. This type of cell constitutes the living beings of all the kingdoms, except the ‘monera’. In this case, the process of cell division occurs in two ways:

  • Mitosis – A cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells.
  • Meiosis – where sexual reproduction is required.

The genetic material or DNA is contained in the nucleus of these cells and is structured and organized in chromosomes. Thus, all animals are constituted by eukaryotic cells; including of course to humans.

Key Differences between Eukaryotic Cell and Prokaryote

Eukaryotic cells have nuclei, whereas prokaryotes do not.

  • DNA in prokaryotic cells has a circular circuit, whereas in eukaryotes it is linear.
  • Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotes.
  • The organisms with prokaryotic cells are unicellular, whereas those with eukaryotic cells are multicellular.
  • Eukaryotic cells always have cytoskeleton, while prokaryotes do not.
  • In prokaryotic cells, cell division is produced by binary fission; while in eukaryotes it can be by mitosis or meiosis.
  • Reproduction in prokaryotic cells is always asexual, while in eukaryotes it can be sexual or asexual.
  • Prokaryotic cells have mesosomes, whereas eukaryotic cells do not.