Difference between Ionic and Covalent Bond

Ionic vs. Covalent Bond

What is Difference between ionic and covalent bond? In order to create molecules and compounds, the atoms form bonds between them. A bond is a chemical process that occurs from the attraction between two or more atoms.

A chemical bond is the result of the electrostatic attraction force. Depending on the strength of these links, they can be classified into “strong links” and “weak links”. The most common examples of strong bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. For this reason, we will tell you the difference between ionic and covalent bond.

Difference between Ionic and Covalent Bond

Ionic bonding

It is a chemical bond between two different atoms (one metallic and another nonmetallic) in which an atom yields one electron to another (there is a transfer). In this case, one atom loses an electron and the other gains an extra electron.

The metal ion that loses an electron has a positive charge, whereas the nonmetallic ion that gains the electron has a negative charge. As in these cases the opposites attract, these ions are strongly attracted to each other so strongly that they eventually form crystalline networks. Usually the ionic compounds are in the form of solids, i.e., salts. They are highly soluble in water and have a high melting point; also have a high electrical conductivity.

Covalent bond

This is another type of strong chemical bond. It is carried out between similar (i.e. two non-metallic) atoms. In a covalent bond the two atoms come together to share one electron, instead of one atom taking one electron from another. In the covalent encalce there is a stable equilibrium between the pulling force and repulsion of the atoms, since they share the electron. These bonds can be classified into single, double and triple covalent bonds; depending on how many electrons they share. Each shared electron forms a bond.

In this type of bond, when an atom has an electron in its outer layer and another atom requires an electron to form its own, they come together to share the electron. In this way, a stable electronic configuration is achieved.

In conclusion, the chemical bonds are made so that the atoms can have their complete outer layer, this means that they have a stable electronic configuration. In the ionic bond, when the metallic atom has only one electron in its outer layer and the nonmetallic one needs an electron to complete its layer; the metallic atom makes its electron to the non-metallic. Likewise, in the covalent bond the electron is shared in order to achieve equilibrium.

Key differences between Ionic Covalent Bond

  • The ionic bond occurs between two different atoms (metallic and non-metallic), while the covalent bond occurs between two equal (non-metallic) atoms.
  • In the covalent bond there is an electron compartment, while in the ionic bond there is an electron transfer.
  • Ionic bonds have a high melting point and boiling point, while covalent bonds usually have a low point.