Difference between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning: – The inductive and the deductive are two different methods of reasoning, which are also applied in both Philosophy and almost all scientific research. These methods are part of logical thinking and of analytical processes, but it is important to know that are completely different the one from the other and which are used depending on the needs of the investigator.
Difference between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
As we know that probably the completion of your task and your qualification depends on the information we give you on this subject, here’s the difference between inductive vs. deductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning is also known as “bottom-up” logic. It is a type of reasoning that focuses on the creation of generalized statements from specific examples or events.
When this type of reasoning is done, one works from concrete examples that may or may not be true; then they are transferred to generalized concepts.
To be better understood, imagine that the high school athletic team is Frederick and Julien; both of tall stature; from this and following a form of inductive reasoning we would say that all runners in the athletic team must be high. In the end, this could turn out to be true or false.
In many cases, inductive reasoning is criticized; since it is usually considered as an imprecise method, given that generalizations are made from few specific examples.
Inductive reasoning was popularly used by Isaac Newton when developing his Theory of Gravity. Newton used his observations of planetary movements and apples falling from the tree of his house and induced that there was a force responsible for the way certain things worked.
Despite the criticism, the inductive method is important for science, since it serves as a starting point for the conduct of tests that later provide evidence about truth or falsity of the assumption.
It is also important to mention that the prejudices that almost all of us have are closely related to the use of inductive reasoning (who would say it). People (at least the majority) usually make general statements from particular events.
For example, if we find out that the thief who got into our neighbor’s house and that the guy who was driving drunk and caused an accident, they had tattoos; more than one will say or at least think that all people tattooed have behavior problems, ignoring the many cases in which people without tattoos have perpetuated similar actions and the number of people tattooed who have never had behavior problems.
Deductive reasoning differs from inductive because it uses generalized concepts to try to reach more specific ones. For this reason it is also known as the “top-down” approach.
The researcher who employs this method begins with a generalized idea and is making his way to a specific example. In this case, inferences are inferred from an existing theory.
This form of reasoning links the premises with the conclusion, stating that if all these are true. The following could be an example of deductive reasoning:
- All animals are deadly.
- A dog is an animal.
- Therefore, a dog is also deadly.
As can be seen, the generalized theory is that all animals are mortal, from this it is stated that a specimen of an animal species (a dog) is also deadly.
As in the case of inductive reasoning, in this case too, the final conclusion may be false or true; depending on whether or not the generalized theory is wrong.
A syllogism is a type of deductive reasoning, much used in mathematics. Is very popular if A = B and B = C then A = C.
Key differences between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
- The inductive method starts from something specific to arrive at a general conclusion, whereas the deductive method takes generalized concepts to arrive at a specific conclusion.
- An example of inductive reasoning is: My Spanish Language teacher is fat and my brother’s teacher is also, therefore, all teachers of Spanish Language are fat.
- An example of deductive reasoning is: My mother never tells lies. Yesterday my mother told me that a cat spoke to her. As she never lies, what she said is true.