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Difference between Gyrus and Sulcus

Difference between Gyrus and Sulcus

The cerebrum, the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain, is divided into two hemispheres by a deep furrow called the longitudinal fissure. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes – frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital – by three sulci (plural of sulcus), including the lateral sulcus (of Sylvius), which separates the frontal and parietal lobes; the central sulcus, which separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe; and the posterior cerebral sulcus (of Rolando), which separates the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobes.

What is Gyrus?

Gyrus is a medical term that refers to the ridge or furrow on the surface of the brain. The word comes from the Greek word for “circle” or “ring.” Gyri are important for brain function because they provide more surface area for neurons to come into contact with each other. This increased contact allows for better communication between different areas of the brain. Gyri also play a role in memory and learning. Studies have shown that people with more developed gyri tend to perform better on memory tests. The term “gyrus” is also used to refer to other circular or spiral-shaped structures, such as the coils of a snail shell.

What is Sulcus?

The sulcus is a Latin word meaning furrow or groove. In anatomy, a sulcus (plural: sulci) is a furrow, groove, or crease. Sulci are commonly found on the surface of the brain, where they help to divide different areas of the cerebral cortex. Sulci can also be found in other organs, such as the heart and lungs. Sulci help to increase the surface area of an organ, which allows it to perform its functions more effectively.

Sulci also play an important role in communication between different areas of the brain. When Sulcus is used in relation to the brain, it usually refers to the central sulcus, which is a deep furrow that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. Sulci are named based on their location and shape.

For example, the superior sagittal sulcus is a shallow groove that runs along the top of the skull, while the lateral sulcus is a deeper furrow that runs down the side of the brain. Sulci can be shallow or deep, straight or curved, and they can vary greatly in size. Sulci are an important part of brain anatomy, and they can provide valuable information about the function of different areas of the brain.

Difference between Gyrus and Sulcus

Gyrus and Sulcus are two types of brain structures. A Gyrus is a thickened ridge of cerebral cortex, while a Sulcus is a shallow groove in the cerebral cortex. Gyri are separated by Sulci. Gyrus is derived from Greek word gyrus meaning “circle or ring”. Sulcus is derived from Latin word sulcus meaning “groove or furrow”. Gyrus helps to increase the surface area of cerebral cortex, while Sulcus helps to divide the cortex into functionally distinct areas.

Gyrus contains more Grey matter than White matter, while Sulcus contains more White matter than Grey matter. Gyrus are usually longer and wider than Sulci. Gyrus are usually closer to the midline of brain than Sulci.Gyrus function as integration centers for incoming information from thalamus, while Sulci function as demarcation lines between different cortical areas. Gyrus contain more cell bodies than Sulci. Gyrus are less deep than Sulci.


While both gyri and sulci are found on the surface of the brain, they have different functions. Gyri are ridges that form when the cortex swells, while sulci are valleys or furrows that separate gyri. The function of a gyrus is to increase the surface area of the cortex so that more neurons can be packed in. This allows for faster and more complex processing of information. The function of a sulcus is to create space between gyri so that each one can operate independently. By understanding these differences, we can better understand how the brain works and what role each part plays in cognition and behavior.

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