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Difference between DNA POLYMERASE and RNA POLYMERASE

Difference between DNA POLYMERASE and RNA POLYMERASE

There are two main types of polymerases: DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase. Both enzymes play critical roles in the replication of genetic material, but they have different responsibilities. DNA polymerase is responsible for synthesizing new DNA strands, while RNA polymerase synthesizes new RNA chains. Understanding the differences between these two enzymes is essential for anyone working in molecular biology or genetics.

What is DNA POLYMERASE?

DNA polymerase is an enzyme responsible for the replication of DNA. It catalyzes the formation of new DNA strands by binding to DNA template and adding nucleotides to it. DNA polymerase can also proofread its own work by recognizing mismatched bases and correcting them. This error-correction mechanism ensures that DNA polymerase produces accurate copies of DNA. DNA polymerase is found in all cells and plays a vital role in DNA replication.without it, cells would not be able to divide and produce new cells. As a result, DNA polymerase is essential for the survival of all organisms.

What is RNA POLYMERASE?

RNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes RNA synthesis by RNA template. RNA Template is complementary to the RNA sequence which is being copied.

  • RNA polymerase has a 5’ to 3’ directionality, meaning it can only add ribonucleotides to the 3’ end of an RNA molecule. RNA pol differentiates between the coding and non-coding regions of the template strand. It also can transcribe all genes except for RNA genes. RNA polymerases are classified into three types: type I, type II, and type III according to their structure, function, and the type of RNA they synthesize.
  • RNA polymerase I is responsible for synthesizing ribosomal RNA (rRNA), RNA polymerase II synthesizes mRNA and snRNA while RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNA and other small RNAs. The main function of RNA polymerase is to provide instructions from DNA to be used in protein synthesis by translating the genetic information in mRNA.
  • In order for translation to happen, the mRNA has to be remembered from DNA; this is done by enzymes called RNA polymerases that copy sections of the DNA double helix into an RNA molecule. The copying process starts at a specific location on the DNA molecule called a promoter site and proceeds along the template strand in a 3′ to 5′ direction; this new RNA strand is complementary to one of the DNA strands. The result of this process is called transcription, and its product is called mRNA (messenger RNA). Once the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, where translation begins.

Difference between DNA POLYMERASE and RNA POLYMERASE

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes DNA, while RNA polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes RNA. Both types of polymerases require a template DNA strand to produce their complementary strand; however, DNA polymerase can only use DNA as a template, while RNA polymerase can use either DNA or RNA. In addition, DNA polymerase always produces DNA strands that are the same as the template strand, while RNA polymerase can produce either perfect complementary strands or strands with some errors (depending on the type of RNA being produced). Finally, DNA polymerases are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, while RNA polymerases are found only in eukaryotic cells. These differences between DNA and RNA polymerases are essential for the proper function of each type of enzyme.

Conclusion

In conclusion, DNA polymerase is responsible for synthesizing new DNA strands while RNA polymerase is responsible for synthesizing new RNA strands. The two enzymes have different functions and are not interchangeable.

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